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Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Time and Place of Death are Predestined

A question was asked whether the place of one’s death is predetermined and/or predestined.

The time of death is predetermined, The Quran tells us:
Aal-e-Imraan 3:145 
It is not for any soul to die, save by the permission of God, at an appointed time.
وَما كانَ لِنَفسٍ أَن تَموتَ إِلّا بِإِذنِ اللَّهِ كِتابًا مُؤَجَّلًا
Al-Munafiqoon 63:10-11 
And spend out of what We have given you before death comes to one of you, so that he should say: My Lord! why did You not respite me for a short while, so that I should have given charity and been of the doers of good deeds?
And God does not respite a soul when its appointed term has come, and God is Aware of what you do.
وَأَنفِقوا مِن ما رَزَقناكُم مِن قَبلِ أَن يَأتِيَ أَحَدَكُمُ المَوتُ فَيَقولَ رَبِّ لَولا أَخَّرتَني إِلىٰ أَجَلٍ قَريبٍ فَأَصَّدَّقَ وَأَكُن مِنَ الصّالِحينَ
وَلَن يُؤَخِّرَ اللَّهُ نَفسًا إِذا جاءَ أَجَلُها ۚ وَاللَّهُ خَبيرٌ بِما تَعمَلونَ
But is the place and country of one’s death is also predetermined as asked?

The Quran tells us that a person does not have advance knowledge of the place where he or she is going to die or be buried:
Luqman 31:34
Surely God is He with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and He sends down the rain and He knows what is in the wombs; and no one knows what he shall earn tomorrow; and no one knows in what land he shall die; surely God is Knowing, Aware.
إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلمُ السّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الغَيثَ وَيَعلَمُ ما فِي الأَرحامِ ۖ وَما تَدري نَفسٌ ماذا تَكسِبُ غَدًا ۖ وَما تَدري نَفسٌ بِأَيِّ أَرضٍ تَموتُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَليمٌ خَبيرٌ

While the knowledge of one’s final resting place is hidden, it is indeed predetermined. In fact The Quran tells us that if people had remained in their houses for fear of being killed, and if killing was indeed decreed for them, they would have gone out to place of their death and/or burial.
Aal-e-Imran 3:154
...They say: Had we any hand in the affair, we would not have been slain here. Say: Had you remained in your houses, those for whom slaughter was ordained would certainly have gone forth to their (final) resting places, and that God might test what was in your breasts and that He might purge what was in your hearts; and God knows what is in the breasts.
يَقولونَ لَو كانَ لَنا مِنَ الأَمرِ شَيءٌ ما قُتِلنا هاهُنا ۗ قُل لَو كُنتُم في بُيوتِكُم لَبَرَزَ الَّذينَ كُتِبَ عَلَيهِمُ القَتلُ إِلىٰ مَضاجِعِهِم ۖ وَلِيَبتَلِيَ اللَّهُ ما في صُدورِكُم وَلِيُمَحِّصَ ما في قُلوبِكُم ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَليمٌ بِذاتِ الصُّدورِ
The word used for the places of death or burial or final resting places is madaji’ (مَضَاجِع) [ ḍād jīm ʿayn (ض ج ع) ] which has been used to mean ‘bed’ or ‘sleeping place’ in The Quran (4:34, 32:16). Therefore in 3:154 it has been used to indicate a ‘final resting place’.

The use of ‘sleeping place’ / ‘bed’ is also appropriate to indicate ‘place of death’ as The Quran has compared sleep (nawm) with death:
Az-Zumur 39:42 
God takes the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep; then He withholds those on whom He has passed the decree of death and sends the others back till an appointed term; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect. 
اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الأَنفُسَ حينَ مَوتِها وَالَّتي لَم تَمُت في مَنامِها ۖ فَيُمسِكُ الَّتي قَضىٰ عَلَيهَا المَوتَ وَيُرسِلُ الأُخرىٰ إِلىٰ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ في ذٰلِكَ لَآياتٍ لِقَومٍ يَتَفَكَّرونَ

Fahad Ali Khan

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